Masturbation and oral sex

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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Less is known about the sexual health of young adults compared to adolescents, despite year olds' greater risk of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This paper provides information on college students' prior and current sexual practices, including oral sex, vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, and masturbation. The sample consisted of non-Hispanic white, never-married students who identified as heterosexual.

Twenty percent had ever engaged in anal intercourse. Analyses exhibited several sexual health challenges, including lack of verbal sexual consent, alcohol use proximal to sex, and lack of contraceptive use. Although few young adults are substituting it for vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse is increasingly common, and safer sex efforts should encourage condom use during both sexual activities. Masturbation should be encouraged as an alternative to higher risk sexual practices and an essential aspect of sexual well-being.

Finally, practitioners should continue to address specific threats to college students' sexual health, including alcohol use and nonverbal consent. For decades, the sexual behaviors of young people have been of ificant interest to researchers, policy makers, and—not least—the general public. Surveillance studies have most consistently tracked the prevalence of vaginal intercourse over time, especially among adolescents. Among U. Despite small recent declines among teenagers, vaginal intercourse appears to be a strongly normative sexual experience among people in their early 20s.

Increasingly, research Masturbation and oral sex explored non-coital activities such as oral sex 3and—most recently of all—anal intercourse. Although anal intercourse is still far less ubiquitous, its prevalence within the U. Anal intercourse is associated with higher per-act probability of HIV transmission compared to vaginal intercourse 13but evidence suggests that young people are less likely to use condoms during anal intercourse than vaginal intercourse 14 Solitary masturbation is another sexual activity common to young people, but masturbation has been comparatively unexplored in the literature—undoubtedly due to a focus on negative sexual outcomes such as sexually transmitted infections STIs and unintended pregnancy Despite a few exceptions 17even less has been written about masturbation among young women 18who are especially likely to struggle with masturbation-related guilt 19 This lack of research attention is unfortunate, given masturbation's potential association with greater self-efficacy, enjoyment, and self-care 21or even its substitution for higher risk sexual practices The Chicago investigators also found that this age group was more likely to feel guilty about masturbating than any other age group.

The studies cited above demonstrate a reasonably clear picture of the patterns and pervasiveness of these sexual activities individually: vaginal intercourse, oral sex, anal intercourse, and masturbation. However, despite a recent analysis that differentiated between coital and non-coital activities 22we know comparatively little about the ways in which these four sexual activities are most commonly clustered or concentrated among young people.

Understanding the most common combinations could provide a better overall discernment of young people's sexual scripts and well-being. It could also supply information on how to better package our sexual health promotion and risk-reduction efforts and messages. The investigators found large differences in the rates of oral sex and anal intercourse according to whether adolescents had engaged in vaginal intercourse.

Not only were vaginal intercourse and oral sex strongly associated with one another, but the likelihood of engaging in anal intercourse increased ificantly with extended duration of time after first vaginal intercourse. Despite the Masturbation and oral sex of this study, the analyses did not include masturbation, which can be an important aspect of overall sexual well-being. Furthermore, few comparable studies have been conducted among older youth.

One in ten of the year olds in Lindberg et al. Indeed, most researchers and policy makers who monitor young people's sexual behavior have focused overwhelmingly on adolescents—but there are compelling reasons to concentrate on young adults. Stage-of-life influences on sexuality differ decidedly among young adults compared to adolescents; young adulthood ushers in far less adult supervision, often with a living situation removed from one's parent sfactors that contribute to new sexual openness and possibilities for exploration.

College students face unique challenges in their pursuit of sexual health and enjoyment. They are more likely than their nonstudent counterparts as well as more likely than adolescents to have multiple sexual partners and use drugs and alcohol proximal to sexual activity Alcohol use during the college years is more common than during any other phase of life, and alcohol use tends to be strongly associated with multiple or casual sex partners although it is inconsistently associated with condom use 25 This paper presents from a study of college students, exploring which sexual activities tend to be most commonly clustered together among individual students.

We also sought to provide a more detailed look at masturbation and several other current and sexual practices e. Data originate from an anonymous questionnaire administered to students in October and November of at two public universities—one located in Texas and one in Wisconsin. These data derive Masturbation and oral sex a larger study of sexual behavior and attitudes among students at four universities 19at two of which certain questions on sexual behavior were not asked, making their data unusable for this study.

Human subjects protocols for the study were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Boards IRBs of all four universities. The remaining procedures relate only to the two schools Texas and Wisconsin on which this paper is based. In the data collection process, the principal investigators at Wisconsin Davidson and Texas Moore obtained cooperation from a wide array of professors at their respective universities. During the class period devoted to the survey, students were informed by the investigators that they were conducting a study concerning the sexual attitudes and behaviors college students that had been approved by the IRB on their campus.

Lower and upper division classes in general education, social sciences, business, and family studies were used.

Masturbation and oral sex

During the class period devoted to the survey, using a script, the primary investigators explained the survey procedures for the study, assuring potential respondents that their participation was voluntary and anonymous. They were then given a cover letter, certifying IRB approval, and a copy of the questionnaire. Students were instructed that if they did not wish to participate, they were to return the questionnaire uncompleted. After completion of questionnaire, which took approximately 45 minutes, it was deposited by the student into a ballot box at the front of the room before exiting.

A research assistant monitored the return of the questionnaires. The response rate was No incentives of any kind were offered for participation. The questionnaire consisted of both open and close-ended questions pertaining to demographic information, sexual history, contraceptive practices, STI history, sexual attitudes, sexual guilt, and sexual satisfaction.

Masturbation and oral sex

Some questions requested that students write in their numeric answer—for example, their age or of sexual partners. Other questions asked students to circle the appropriate categorical response. Altogether, students were surveyed, at Texas and at Wisconsin. The sex ratio was a function of the classes available in which to conduct the survey, including psychology, sociology, and family studies courses, which have a disproportionate of female students.

Given our interest in premarital sexual activity in this analysis, the sample was limited to those students who had never been married which excluded married, divorced, separated, or widowed students, leaving women and men. Moreover, both Blacks and Hispanics report substantially different rates of oral sex and anal intercourse than non-Hispanic whites Thus, the analyses were restricted to non-Hispanic whites only, 1, women and men. These exclusion and inclusion criteria created a final sample size of students, with from Masturbation and oral sex women, menand from Texas women, men. Given the strong and persistent effect of gender on sexual attitudes and practices, we stratified all analyses by gender in order to examine men's and women's separately.

Preliminary analyses indicated ificant differences between the two school locations for some of the sexuality variables, so subsequent analyses were stratified by school location as well. Young men and women at the two universities were compared with respect to sexual behaviors using Chi-square tests, analysis of variance ANOVAand T-tests as appropriate. Table 1 displays a of descriptive and socio-demographic characteristics of the sample. Respondents' mean age was The vast majority of students who had engaged in anal intercourse had also had vaginal intercourse.

Although sexual activity groupings did not differ ificantly by school, they did by gender—mainly due to women's lower prevalence of masturbation. Lack of Masturbation and oral sex use at first vaginal intercourse may be explained in part by nonverbal consent and alcohol use. Those students who provided nonverbal consent and who were intoxicated at the time were ificantly less likely to have used a contraceptive method during first vaginal intercourse not shown. Among those students who already had engaged in vaginal intercourse at least once, the average of lifetime sexual partners ranged from 3.

s were ificantly higher for male students at both schools, and both Texas men and women reported ificantly more partners than Wisconsin men and women, respectively. But the mean of partners reported in the last year 1.

Respondents also reported frequent vaginal intercourse, with a mean ranging from 2. However, a surprisingly large minority of students do not use contraception at every sexual episode. Table 4 presents findings on masturbation practices. Most students at both schools masturbate regularly and most started several years before initiating intercourse. Despite ificant gender differences in the expected direction, women displayed a striking frequency of masturbation.

Those who do masturbate started the practice within two years of young men's initiation In terms of a weekly composite, women had masturbated an average of two times per week compared to men's three times. Guilt related to masturbation was prevalent, and ificantly more so for Wisconsin students and for women than men at both schools. In this analysis of sexual activities and behaviors among non-Hispanic white, heterosexual college students at two large universities, we have added another layer of understanding to what we currently know about the sexual activities of young adults, especially Masturbation and oral sex to adolescents.

Twice as many college students in this sample have engaged in anal intercourse compared to the adolescents in Lindberg et al. Although anal sex is still practiced by a minority of young adults, public health practitioners need to recognize that its practice appears to be increasing among youth, and safer sex promotion efforts should respond appropriately 6 However, consistent with Lindberg et al. The overwhelming majority of respondents who have had anal intercourse have also had vaginal intercourse, and usually in conjunction with oral sex and—for men in particular—masturbation.

And most Masturbation and oral sex who have had vaginal intercourse have also had oral sex. The most common combination for men is masturbation, oral sex, and vaginal intercourse; for women, oral sex and vaginal intercourse only.

Fourteen percent of all students had taken part in all four activities, and eight percent had not yet taken part in any of them. Our dataset also afforded us a closer look at the masturbation practices of college students. These figures are nearly identical to Pinkerton et al. ificant evidence indicates that U. However, from another angle, findings from this study indicate a less striking gender disparity: young women's mean age of first solo masturbation was only 1.

Regular masturbation can be an important aspect of overall sexual well-being, given its associations with greater sexual enjoyment and self awareness, especially among women 17 Future analyses should explore whether regular masturbation is also associated with more frequent safer sex practices, as preliminary research suggests Public health practitioners would be wise to promote masturbation as an essential aspect of sexual health and safer sex.

But challenges to this strategy certainly exist, given the guilt and stigma associated with the practice, especially for women. Laumann et al. Thus, we agree with other scholars and practitioners who advocate for the reduction of social stigma around masturbation as an important step in the improvement of young people's mental and sexual health 1721 Our findings illustrate some of the major obstacles to optimal sexual health among college students, including alcohol use and nonverbal consent for vaginal intercourse.

In other analyses with these data, we found that couples who did not verbally discuss whether to initiate intercourse were ificantly less likely to have used contraception Unfortunately, this survey provides us with no measures of consent during more recent sexual episodes. The issue of consent and sexual ambiguity, especially when combined with alcohol use, could be an important focus in future studies of young adults' sexual health Thus, we did not have adequate space to explore the factors most strongly associated with various sexual behaviors, nor to describe the socio-demographic profile of those respondents most likely to have engaged in each of the behaviors.

However, our intention here was to present a wide-angle sexual snapshot of these college students' sexual histories and behaviors, and to achieve a level of detail not available in large studies of college student 26 - 28especially regarding practices such as anal sex, masturbation, nonverbal consent, etc. Nor did we have space in this paper to extensively explore possible explanations for ificant differences between the school locations.

Several factors could have explained slight sexual differences between the two universities, including sexuality education history, social drinking norms on the respective campuses, different levels of religiosity between the student bodies, as well as well as regional differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors Future studies could more deeply investigate the extent to which campuses comprise different sexual cultures that shape students' behaviors.

Any study of sexual behavior is subject to reporting bias, given both social stigma and recall issues. For example, people are likely under-report more taboo practices such as masturbation 35 and anal sex. Studies have also shown that respondents can misclassify earlier reports of their age at first intercourse 3637and the issue of consent may also be prone to misclassification. But other studies have found very strong consistency of reports of early sexual experiences, especially among younger adults Early sexual experiences such as first sexual intercourse are likely to be vivid events for many respondents 3940and the time gap between first intercourse and the reporting of this event will be shorter in a sample of college students than in a sample of older adults.

Furthermore, information on sexual behaviors always depends on self-report, so the assessing sexual health practices necessitates the use of this type of data collection and its potential bias Given this study's use of a non-random sample of non-Hispanic white, heterosexual students at only two universities, cannot be extrapolated to all U. We encourage future studies of young adults' sexuality to explore whether or not the sexual combinations most common in these data would emerge from more diverse, representative samples.

That said, our findings are notably similar to more nationally representative college student samples. The analyses were also limited by the sexual information collected. Unlike the instrument used by Lindberg et al. Thus, it is impossible to document sexual trajectories—for example, the degree to which oral sex precedes vaginal intercourse, or how frequently anal intercourse occurs after versus before vaginal intercourse.

Masturbation and oral sex

Further, the oral sex variable did not distinguish between oral sex received or givenwhich could hide a gender disparity. Young women may be slightly but ificantly more likely than men to have performed rather than received oral sex The lifetime sexual partners variable did not specify the kinds of sex implicated with the exception of vaginal intercourse. Despite its limitations, this study has expanded the public health field's understanding of young adult sexual health, adding an important layer to our existing knowledge of adolescent sexuality.

This study has outlined both historical and current sexual behaviors and highlighted some of the challenges to—and potential advances in—optimal sexual health among young people more generally and college students in particular. Albright in particular—for managing the dataset. Higgins thanks Margo Mullinax for her outstanding assistance during the final stages of manuscript preparation.

Moore and Davidson express their appreciation to John C.

Masturbation and oral sex

email: [email protected] - phone:(707) 692-3531 x 5840

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