Hi boys and maybe girls too

Added: Ashtin Niemeyer - Date: 09.02.2022 20:47 - Views: 22869 - Clicks: 4472

Gender roles are the patterns of behaviors, attitudes, and expectations associated with a particular sex—with being either male or female. For clarity, psychologists sometimes distinguish gender differenceswhich are related to social roles, from sex differenceswhich are related only to physiology and anatomy.

Hi boys and maybe girls too

Using this terminology, gender matters in teaching more than sex in spite of any jokes told about the latter! Although there are many exceptions, boys and girls do differ on average in ways that parallel conventional gender stereotypes and that affect how the sexes behave at school and in class.

The differences have to do with physical behaviors, styles of social interaction, academic motivations, behaviors, and choices. They have a variety of sources—primarily parents, peers, and the media.

Hi boys and maybe girls too

Teachers are certainly not the primary cause of gender role differences, but sometimes teachers influence them by their responses to and choices made on behalf of students. Physically, boys tend to be more active than girls, and by the same token more restless if they have to sit for long periods. Both tendencies are inconsistent with the usual demands of classroom life, of course, and make it a little more likely that school will be a difficult experience for boys, even for boys who never actually get in trouble for being restless or aggressive.

During the first two or three years of elementary school, gross motor skills develop at almost the same average rate for boys and girls. As a groupboth sexes can run, jump, throw a ball, and the like with about equal ease, though there are of course wide Hi boys and maybe girls too differences among individuals of both sexes.

Toward the end of elementary school, however, boys pull ahead of girls at these skills even though neither sex has begun yet to experience puberty. Puberty eventually adds to this advantage by making boys taller and stronger than girls, on average, and therefore more suited at least for sports that rely on height and strength. In thinking about these differences, keep in mind that they refer to average trends and that there are numerous individual exceptions. Every teacher knows of individual boys who are not athletic, for example, or of particular girls who are especially restless in class.

The individual differences mean, among other things, that it is hard to justify providing different levels of support or resources to boys than to girls for sports, athletics, or physical education. The differences also suggest, though, that individual students who contradict gender stereotypes about physical abilities may benefit from emotional support or affirmation from teachers, simply because they may be less likely than usual to get such affirmation from elsewhere.

When relaxing socially, boys more often gravitate to large groups. Girls, for their part, are more likely to seek and maintain one or two close friends and to share more intimate information and feelings with these individuals. To the extent that these gender differences occur, they can make girls less visible or noticeable than boys, at least in leisure play situations where children or youth choose their companions freely. As with physical differences, however, keep in mind that differences in social interactions do not occur uniformly for all boys and girls.

There are boys with close friends, contradicting the general trend, and girls who play primarily in large groups. Differences in social interaction styles happen in the classroom as well. Boys, on average, are more likely to speak up during a class discussion—sometimes even if not called on, or even if they do not know as much about the topic as others in the class Sadker, On average, girls are more motivated than boys to perform well in school, at least during elementary school.

Hi boys and maybe girls too

By the time girls reach high school, however, some may try to down play their own academic ability in order make themselves more likeable by both sexes Davies, Even if this occurs, though, it does not affect their grades: from kindergarten through twelfth grade, girls earn slightly higher average grades than boys Freeman, This fact does not lead to similar achievement, however, because as youngsters move into high school, they tend to choose courses or subjects conventionally associated with their gender—math and science for boys, in particular, and literature and the arts for girls.

But again, consider my caution about stereotyping: there are individuals of both sexes whose behaviors and choices run counter to the group trends. Differences within each gender group generally are far larger than any differences between the groups. Many studies have found none at all. A few others have found small differences, with boys slightly better at math and girls slightly better at reading and literature. Still other studies have found the differences not only are small, but have been getting smaller in recent years compared to earlier studies.

How teachers influence gender roles? Teachers often intend to interact with both sexes equally, and frequently succeed at doing so. Research has found, though, that they do sometimes respond to boys and girls differently, perhaps without realizing it. Three kinds of differences have been noticed. Still another possibility is that boys, compared to girls, may interact in a wider variety of styles and situations, so there may simply be richer opportunities to interact with them.

This last possibility is partially supported by another gender difference in classroom interaction, the amount of public versus private talk.

Hi boys and maybe girls too

The differences are summarized in Table 1. Another way of stating this difference is by what teachers tend to overlook: with boys, they tend to overlook wrong answers, but with girls, they tend to overlook right answers. Gender differences also occur in the realm of classroom behavior.

Hi boys and maybe girls too

This difference can also be stated in terms of what teachers overlook: with girls, they tend to overlook behavior that is not appropriate, but with boys they tend to overlook behavior that is appropriate. At first glance, the gender differences in interaction can seem discouraging and critical of teachers because they imply that teachers as a group are biased about gender.

But this conclusion is too simplistic for a couple of reasons. One is that like all differences between groups, interaction patterns are trends, and as such they hide a lot of variation within them. The other is that the trends suggest what often tends in fact to happen, not what can in fact happen if a teacher consciously sets about to avoid interaction patterns like the ones I have described.

Fortunately for us all, teaching does not need to be unthinking; we have choices that we can make, even during a busy class! Basow, S. Braddock, J. Sociological Spectrum, 25 2— Davies, J. Discourse and Society, 14 2— Erden, F. Early Child Development and Care, 13— Espelage, D. Bullying in American schools: A socio-ecological perspective on prevention and intervention.

Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Delamont, S. Brookfield, MA: Avebury Publishers. Freeman, D. Trends in educational equity of girls and women. Washington, D. Golombok, S. Gender development. New York: Cambridge University Press. Hyde, J. The gender similarities hypothesis. American Psychologist, 60 6— Maccoby, E. Gender and social exchange: A developmental perspective. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Measor, L. Gender and schools.

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New York: Cassell. Messner, M. Silence, sports bras, and wrestling porn. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 27 138— Myaskovsky, L, Unikel, E. Effects of gender diversity on performance and interpersonal behavior in small work groups.

Sadker, D. Phi Delta Kappan, 84 3— Tannen, D. New York: Quill. Wilkinson, L. Gender influences in classroom interaction.

Hi boys and maybe girls too

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